Automobile Casting Process Knowledge And Development Trend Of Its Foundry Technology
Casting is one of the oldest metal forming methods. About 15% ~ 20% of automotive parts are castings made by different casting methods. These castings are mainly key components of power system and important structural components.
Currently Europe and the United States automobile industry developed countries car casting advanced production technology, product quality, production efficiency, environmental pollution. Casting raw and auxiliary materials have been formed series and standardization, the entire production process has been achieved mechanization, automation and intelligence. These countries generally use digital technology to enhance the level of foundry process design, casting scrap rate of about 2% to 5%, and has established a multinational service system and network technical support. In contrast, China's automobile castings, although larger in output, are mostly black castings with added value and low technical content and relatively simple structure, which are far from foreign countries. This paper mainly from the automobile energy saving and environmental protection aspects of the development needs, discusses the car casting and automotive technology development.
With the increasing demand for automobile energy saving and environmental protection as well as the reduction of production cost, the casting and forming advantages of the existing casting, the original stamping, welding, forging and casting of several parts, through rational design and structural optimization of integrated parts casting Forming, can effectively reduce the weight of parts and reduce unnecessary processing technology, so as to achieve the components of lightweight and high performance.
Under the premise of ensuring the strength and safety performance of the vehicle, the curb weight of the vehicle can be reduced as much as possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle so as to improve the dynamic performance of the vehicle, reduce fuel consumption and reduce exhaust pollution. Every 100 kilograms of car curb weight reduction, 100 km fuel consumption can be reduced 0.3 ~ 0.6 L, if the vehicle weight to reduce 10%, fuel efficiency can be increased 6% to 8%. With the need of environmental protection and energy conservation, the light weight of automobiles has become the trend of world automobile development. The light weight of automobile castings has also become one of the important development directions of automotive castings.
The so-called car casting precision casting forming mainly refers to the lost foam and investment casting technology. With the development of automotive casting forming technology, casting precision forming refers to a type of casting forming method. Castings made by this type of shaping can be used directly without cutting or cutting. With the increasing requirements on the precision of castings, casting precision forming technology has been rapidly developed in recent years, and a series of new casting forming methods such as precise sand casting, lost foam casting, controlled pressure casting and pressure casting have emerged. Cosworth casting method is developed by the United Kingdom with a zircon sand sand core combination and the use of electromagnetic pump control pouring method has been successfully used for mass production of aluminum alloy cylinder, and there have been many technological variations, such as the use of low pressure casting instead of electromagnetic Pump casting process. This type of casting method can produce aluminum alloy cylinder wall thickness of 3.5 ~ 4.0 mm, is the representative of the precise sand casting process.
To meet the increasingly stringent environmental laws and regulations, the car is moving in the direction of lightweight. For every 10% reduction in vehicle weight reduction, fuel consumption can be reduced by 5.5%, fuel economy can be increased by 3% ~ 5%, and emission can be reduced by about 10%. The application of aluminum and magnesium and other non-ferrous alloy castings, the development of large and complex integrated structure of castings and the extensive application of precision casting forming technology is the main way to achieve lightweight automotive castings. Therefore, it is required that the research and development and production of automotive castings should be realized through the extensive use of digital technologies, through the wide application of high-performance casting materials and automation equipment and to meet the needs of the modern automobile industry.